Michel Poulain hunting for the secret of a long and healthy life (20-06-2016)

Demographer wants to find the elixir for life by studying communities with super old and healthy people

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00:00:01 So describe your first trip.
00:00:04 So the reason why I came to be like Randy you have to find it a bit earlier this is in one thousand nine hundred ninety
00:00:12 nine we have a meeting in mom per year this is out of friends
00:00:15 and this is a meeting of people dealing with research on longevity
00:00:20 and they are very attentive to validation which means that if these old person are really so all tense all these are
00:00:30 demographic and so margin it isn't and medical doctor so at that meeting you know over ninety nine.
00:00:37 From Sardinia did a presentation
00:00:40 and in this presentation the Explain that in the neural province where we are either in the neural proteins the number
00:00:48 of made centenarian
00:00:49 and female centenarian is about the same we were really skeptical white because all over the world us five six even ten
00:01:00 times more female centenarian compared to maid centenarian So if you have a place where you have the same number it
00:01:07 means that probably the male as exaggerate their age so they declare that they are one hundred
00:01:15 but they are not one hundred so it was clear I remember the coffee break there
00:01:20 and during the coffee Reg They say we need to send somebody to validate to see what happens because it's a removed area
00:01:27 and the Montane there and the person from the Statistical Office of say probably that the data are not existing
00:01:36 or there would be problems and as I was probably the only one as historical demographic there I was volunteer
00:01:44 and so I say I would go there next January so we were in October
00:01:49 and I planned to come twenty of January two thousand and. Wonderful they collect me at the airport in Aguero.
00:02:01 They were there very happy that I will come
00:02:03 and they say we go to a celebration in a village of four centenarian in a village of three thousand a bit
00:02:12 and that was ours are not nearby and OK I say yes I am ready to go
00:02:18 but how can I congratulate this person if I will say just after that they are false OK So I say before to go to the
00:02:27 community I want to go to the municipal
00:02:29 or to see the document if if at least if they exist so we went quickly to the municipal
00:02:35 and they show me that there exist they show me even the birth records of these persons I say OK at least if even if I
00:02:45 am not convinced because they may be other error but at least they are document that they are no me to to check
00:02:52 and then I went to the city Beijing. Among the four.
00:02:58 Centenarian to go where they're in black and I have still in my office. The plate that they gave me.
00:03:08 Telling that on the twenty two of January two thousand I was there
00:03:12 and it sank me that's the really the starting point so.
00:03:18 The second step was that we have to go from village to village and to look people who read one hundred
00:03:26 and to check their document and that's what we did one by one and.
00:03:33 After two months I was able to conclude that I did not find any error. Only one small error was in this village.
00:03:45 A girl I see a girl who was supposed to die at one hundred
00:03:50 and ten in fact replace our older sister well this older sister diet at age two
00:03:57 and so there was a mistake because they considered that.
00:04:00 It was our sister and it was the second one so she was effectively one zero seven only one zero seven you see
00:04:08 but except this I did not find any error and were surprised about it and I was fully surprise
00:04:15 and that was the starting point of the second step because.
00:04:21 According to those who asked me to come on was perfect you have done your job all is OK
00:04:28 but then I say to my friend Johnny This is not the only thing there is something more strong more I will say more
00:04:36 exceptional Look I say
00:04:39 when you go from one village to the other every time you find new centenarian So they are not everywhere lost in the in
00:04:48 the country they are really group in the mountain area there is a nonrandom distribution of centenarians and I tried.
00:04:58 To do it to put on the map the village where we found centenarians and it was I did it slowly
00:05:07 and I put it in blue pen and I discussed with my friend I say you look this blue zone.
00:05:15 Already in March two thousand I was using the term blue zone to then to fight this area where they ever higher number
00:05:23 of centenarians when I mean what do you mean with.
00:05:27 Justice just because I use a blue pencil and with a blue pencil I marked on the map all the village and I.
00:05:36 Surrounded the place where they have this longevity and I
00:05:40 when I was discussing with my friend I say in the blue zone this outside of the blue zone this so the name Blue Zone
00:05:47 became family between us already in two thousand and
00:05:52 but the big difference is that in most of the study they are doing study on centenarian that are there they're there
00:06:00 they're.
00:06:00 Bit everywhere in the city here we are working with what I name population longevity which means the world population
00:06:08 is the even longer not only one or two person
00:06:12 and the other one are normal no in the village you may have easy two to three four centenarian
00:06:18 and even the Nigerian The number is incredible so.
00:06:23 I push the group to go to this new concept of population longevity
00:06:29 and then somebody in a meeting in October two thousand Tell me in the Roman
00:06:35 but I was it possible that these people reached in so large number one hundred or ninety
00:06:42 and that the men do it also very well on one side. But why you need this. But first the key point was that.
00:06:58 When I tried to explain it in the meeting that we have in Rome or with the same group.
00:07:04 They were really skeptical still skeptical and so I discuss with them
00:07:11 and I understand that the only way to prove that it is very unique is to take one village
00:07:19 and in one village to start to do the full in-depth story to work really
00:07:26 and then I say to my friend we will shoot the village that is the highest in the indicator the longevity indicator I
00:07:35 would say the one that is the sharing of the cake you see you have the cake is the longevity area
00:07:41 but you have one village on the top.
00:07:45 And that was the village where we had this girl one one of the ten ten that was effectively one zero seven
00:07:51 but I know that we are gone they may be a good place so we started in two thousand to collect all generals you get
00:07:59 and demographical data. Grandy but it took a lot of time. For a lot of reasons.
00:08:10 A reason first is that the work is not an easy task finally our database now seventeen thousand person with all the
00:08:18 family links
00:08:19 and a lot of things like that so it's you cannot do this in in one month's it takes you have to look all the birth
00:08:26 record of that record the on a graph of the population register
00:08:29 and so on so it's a very huge work so it took a long time
00:08:33 but in Sardinia there is not only the problem of data collection there is the problem of local sensibility
00:08:42 and after some times I understand that they what they were a bit disturbed by my work they considered that the local
00:08:51 researcher and moreover it was a local policymaker he was deputy in the region and.
00:09:01 I don't want any more that this foreigner because this is important if you are not from the I on you are automatically
00:09:08 for in that this for a no will continue to work with us he is disturbing me
00:09:13 and so at one moment my work was really the basis for a project in the U.S.
00:09:22 and I ate National News Digital Beijing we were directly rank it very high there was even a mention in in this science
00:09:31 that the magazine that this is the crack historical demographic that.
00:09:37 Validated this data so that was done in two thousand and then they decided because of this guy you have to grow.
00:09:46 I have a letter from my professor from the U.K. In the U.S.
00:09:51 Telling Michelle for the future of the research you have to go out from the system it's it's it's crazy for you
00:09:59 when you have such an abstract.
00:10:01 Just because you have a good idea and you feel you have to go ahead with this idea you know
00:10:05 but we are convinced that you are the one that is doing the work so I understand it
00:10:10 but that's not important for us I mean you are for us that one finds in our research in the blues so I would like to
00:10:18 continue on that and executive exactly tell me.
00:10:22 Looking at this this blue zone where we are here what in your opinion makes you so unique Why is this the blues
00:10:31 or what is it in these people that is so magical that they grow so. I think that.
00:10:39 I did not discover it at the beginning at the beginning my only attractive.
00:10:46 To me is that the number of centenarian was very high and that the number of male
00:10:52 and female was at the same level this is unique.
00:10:57 You will never find another place on hurt where the number of centenarian is equal between male
00:11:03 and female it was the situation in the past or it may be still the situation is simply so if she rang our India
00:11:10 but this is because of all the situation this is a question of local cultural situation
00:11:17 but in our modern society us more and more female centenarian compared to male
00:11:25 and so having a place where it's one to one while this is very few so.
00:11:31 Doing so I want
00:11:33 and moreover the indicator of the level of longevity for male was really twice more than in all of the country you have
00:11:43 a change out of ten to reach ninety and in good shape that's OK so.
00:11:49 We did it to sink we did first the data collection but we started also to meet people
00:11:55 and to try to understand why because. When you discover something.
00:12:00 You have to say what but there isn't a turret thing that we have to do is to convince our college
00:12:06 and it took me ten years.
00:12:10 To convince first that the data were true and that the situation is that there is this buttons between
00:12:18 and main if you need any they did even something that I never have in my scientific career they sent without informing
00:12:28 me.
00:12:29 Comment validate a new validation story another team to validate what I did
00:12:35 and that finally I get I got the information after and they found that it was correct
00:12:41 but it's so crazy to have such a situation that they need to really take ten years to agree with the situation part of
00:12:51 that that's clear So tell me about the second part of that what what next it's that this is the only place in the world
00:12:57 where there are male and female sentinels though when
00:13:00 when everybody agree on this then you have to start the explanation and. That therefore we started to do survey.
00:13:12 Not I would say it's not a survey with.
00:13:16 Very long questionnaire
00:13:17 and you know it's a survey that has a large part is open to question to try to understand this is one part of the story
00:13:24 then we also this site with the municipality to do a longevity celebration which means that to be very close with the
00:13:33 population this is the only way to try to understand
00:13:36 and progressively we point out the different aspects of their life that could could that might contribute.
00:13:46 Exceptional longevity the first one that emerge.
00:13:52 The fact that these people as a physical activity that really don't stop at sixty five they continue to work.
00:14:00 Even at ninety they decide to keep their garden and so on so there is physical activity that this really.
00:14:10 High level Moreover in the village of us seen if you go from one place to the other one you have always to jump the
00:14:19 slope every way which means that we are not in the flat area we are obliged to do effort on a daily basis.
00:14:30 In term of physical activity and physical effort that's clear there is.
00:14:37 A lesson that we have to consider from me it's not only a year it's always also in other places like this one around
00:14:43 the world so they live longer as active That's the point then. The second point is the fact that.
00:14:55 What they eat is quite different I will not say that that they do they have a method in the diet they don't have this
00:15:04 military and diet because for example somebody will say that take fish
00:15:10 but if you look the fish you have twenty eight kilometer from the sea
00:15:14 and in the past the fish never arrived here so it's not the fish it's meat they have meat
00:15:21 and they eat quite a lot of meat.
00:15:25 Their fruit and they have ventured the bill
00:15:28 but what is too important thing is that this is a locally produced food in the village they do pursuit also this
00:15:36 happens they do the collusion as this is a special dumpling they do the Sheesh they have the potato they have their
00:15:45 wine so I will say that compared to our western society ninety per cent of what they appear on the table is locally
00:15:55 produced and does not go throughout the food industry and for me.
00:16:01 I would say that in our country it's the oppose it you have ninety per cent that went out the food industry so the
00:16:08 natural food is very important but moreover.
00:16:14 I would say that the wine is not the best best best
00:16:17 and even they serve it cold if you have cold wind it for us it's a crime
00:16:23 but it's local it's not it doesn't go to our system where they add something they suppress you know that some wine now
00:16:31 you have a taste but the taste as been added
00:16:34 and so here you are sure that this is wind that they produce the tomato everything or leaf the same and so and so.
00:16:44 But as I say the meat become.
00:16:48 Quite abundant the pork at that for example
00:16:52 and this is the talk seems to be similar with other place to pork the goat not so much a cow so and
00:17:00 but what this clear is that these animals the meat of these animals is not the same as the one in our country because
00:17:07 these are the man has been in the mounting they at.
00:17:13 I would say a lot of herbs that are until York City and and that and so the meat is fully different
00:17:21 and that's something that you may compare yesterday I was in another place
00:17:27 and the meat was really want to feel fully fully different compared to what we have in our country where we go to
00:17:35 process that is not exactly so the quality of the food the locally produced food and then
00:17:42 when they do a meal it's not fast food it takes time OK they meet in the family so that social dimension of the meal is
00:17:53 also very important you may have two or three hours around a table a large family and.
00:18:01 And they eat they eat baby too much I don't know
00:18:05 but it's that the social dimension of the meal is very important sort of social infrastructure of the areas very
00:18:12 important exactly the social support for the oldest old which means for example it's the only place.
00:18:20 In the world that I have seen that they produce calendar with all the centenarian every year so you have a lot of thing
00:18:27 that happen
00:18:28 when we organize is the logic of it is a liberation that there were thirty one for the gravity of centenarian in the
00:18:33 street so they are really promoting
00:18:37 and centenarian promoting the longevity so that these very old people are not outside of the system you see they are
00:18:46 not push outside of the daily life they are proud of the daily life in this village the support to old people nobody go
00:18:56 there is no nursing if you have to go to nursing home you should go to to the city that is half an hour from you so
00:19:04 they stay in the village if they are not living with their child they stay in the neighboring house so they stay in
00:19:12 their own. Surrounding environment but they have direct support and if they have no children.
00:19:23 They are the neighbor people neighboring paper will take care of them down there is a solidarity there is a very
00:19:29 important so the place of the hold of all in the society is very very important
00:19:36 and I would say that our post modern society tried to put away after some age you are even put away at fifty from the
00:19:44 work you are away when you are becoming dependent they put you in a lurching all
00:19:50 and so you know you are really integrated when you were in the border of the blues or you have within the blues
00:19:58 and then just outside.
00:20:01 There is already a difference what is the difference what makes the just outside then and then I will say that.
00:20:09 This is the problem of the shaping of the blue zone which means that in fact you have a gradient
00:20:16 and grandees on the top the neighboring villages are not allowed now delay are not far from the top
00:20:24 and so you try to see what are the same.
00:20:27 Characteristic of these village but if you go to the valley there Dr Ali is there below then maybe the solidarity is.
00:20:38 The same but you feel a big difference you feel a big difference.
00:20:43 There are more people people are more the result of immigration
00:20:47 and why in this village people went out yes there are some immigration
00:20:53 but there are very limited people that arrive here which means that the problem is that the population is decreasing
00:21:01 because when you are young people you want to find a job.
00:21:05 This is not easy so one out of to leave the village at age twenty or thirty and the other one will stay
00:21:12 but then the population is decreasing so this village are really.
00:21:18 Keeping their cultural their specificity and that's why the solidarity is still the highest in the city like calorie
00:21:26 and and society this is not possible to see this there and that's very important point
00:21:33 but where does it stop this is the problem so we did it on the map.
00:21:40 A place that we named the blue zone with fourteen village by based on the longevity index
00:21:47 and then we have a larger one that cover all the Montane of Sardinia that is a light blue zone if you want
00:21:53 and then you have the rest of Sardinia and we did it based on a scientific investigation which mooting methods and.
00:22:01 But so we look for that the longevity index and now and now we go with this
00:22:06 and we try to see what is the difference between a longevity village and another one
00:22:12 and that's what we are doing now we are picking some villages that are not in the blues
00:22:17 and we try to compare what are the different between the two motors What are the differences how we are not yet far in
00:22:23 this because this is something not easy to do because we have different for example the level of dementia should be
00:22:31 compare the level of depression but also old genes genes
00:22:36 and the some biomedical indicator biomarker recently we discovered that there in the scene there is a big difference
00:22:44 between what what we found
00:22:47 and what we found in the city what differences are fine there is something that make I will say this is the job of my
00:22:56 colleagues never was what was what was what was that what it means that they are taking advantage of what they eat
00:23:03 and so on better than the one in the valley and it should contribute
00:23:08 but it's not easy to associate the two for example somebody try to explain that height you know people are very short
00:23:15 here they are an average one meter sixty four man and and they're you know even shorter
00:23:21 and somebody did find a gene explaining this
00:23:25 and now we are doing some review to see is it this genes is it something like that and so is the food and so on
00:23:32 but we so really big difference
00:23:35 and in the in the country the people in the mountain are shorter than people in the in the city where that that's very
00:23:42 important Can you imagine the average age at military service about one meter sixty and it's not so long time ago
00:23:50 and if you look in the village now you will see everybody is a bit short of that so that's that's one difference this
00:23:57 is a strong difference yes so you have probably.
00:24:00 Also some difference in the in the genes you have probably you have for sure difference in the lifestyle that's clear
00:24:08 in the city you cannot have the same life died idea of the quality of water air
00:24:13 and everything the absence of stress all those thing are really different the main problem for scientists is to put
00:24:21 everything in the same model and based on this just to conclude.
00:24:28 You are dealing with an interdisciplinary approach which means that you have an information from environment from
00:24:37 nutrition from other approaches from social issues from demographic from genetics
00:24:42 and even now from a pigeon It takes a pigeon it takes is a new way to enter in the study of longevity it's the
00:24:51 interaction between genetics and environment
00:24:55 and we are convince We tried to do something in Sardinia we generated we did not find any genes that may explain their
00:25:03 longevity in Sardinia but why because we need three thousand ten thousand centenarians to.
00:25:12 Do research we conclusion in genetics in a P.G.
00:25:16 Tips and that's very attractive with two hundred person you may already conclude something
00:25:22 and what is good is that usually they are now doing centenarian that centenarian plaque block like this here we will do
00:25:32 it.
00:25:33 On a population that this common trait which means the same food same environment so we are controlling a lot of very
00:25:43 able so that we will be able to see if something is really particularly
00:25:48 and we have already some explanation because the food is the same
00:25:52 and so so we are in the best condition to see if there is an A.P. Genetics of longevity and it is.
00:26:00 We already some explanation if it emerge
00:26:03 and wondering what what this explanation could be it should be linked to the special life of Shepherd So you have to
00:26:12 now that in the area.
00:26:15 Beginning of the twentieth century everybody was shepherds or as parents that were Shepherd
00:26:21 and so what was the life of a shepherd they have to go in winter in the valley six months
00:26:28 and they go really forty kilometer from here with all their animals only the men go down the shepherd
00:26:35 and they come back in May early May in the village with all the animals
00:26:42 and this is one week of big celebration in the village
00:26:45 but they stay only one week in the village that's why Nine months later you have a lot of baby justice
00:26:52 and then they go up to the mountain and they stay in the month in the world summer and come back in October November
00:27:00 and then again go to the winter so these shepherds spent most of their life outside of their family they have a very
00:27:10 different way of living they add very different food because they have to do to rely on their.
00:27:20 Own that they found and on this Brett that you can see this bread that you take with you
00:27:25 and may stay several months this be stuck with it this is bread that you have to wash before to eat to make it easier
00:27:32 to eat and so it's different nutrition different way of living and so I assume and the mother at all as all the.
00:27:44 I would say all the difficulty all the stress of the family this is the reason why men
00:27:49 and women live probably the same the same because their life is fully different but at the same time.
00:27:59 Having these very.
00:28:01 Positive aspect in the month in fresh air fresh water good food no stress
00:28:08 and so on may have an impact on your children and grandchildren
00:28:12 and it comes to be genetics because there is a transmission from generation to generation of some trade coming from you
00:28:20 may have this good genes but due to the vitamin it is not activated and that's very important or you may have a.
00:28:29 Bad genes
00:28:30 but also do due to the fact that it's not activated you will not be disturbed by this so rule of the environment is
00:28:38 very important
00:28:39 and this is a very good message for society because for me it would be crazy if I conclude with my study that there are
00:28:48 two kinds of people those who have this good genes and those who don't know that if there is a logic.
00:28:55 And somebody has the longevity genes don't problem you may do what you want you will live longer than the other one can
00:29:01 you imagine it is this is that at Mystic there is no solution
00:29:05 but know the good point with a passion it exists that you may activate on activate those you may do something yourself
00:29:13 and you may even take advantage of what your previous your parents and grandparents that
00:29:19 and maybe the secret is that a lot of these ancestor were shepherds
00:29:24 and has a wonderful life with wonderful situation with physical activity food and so on
00:29:31 and it may explain the difference between male and female and it may explain why the longevity is the highest
00:29:38 but that's it it really we are only at the starting point
00:29:43 and that's why it will probably go on several several years and when you look at when I would live here for example
00:29:51 when I would move into this village
00:29:53 and there I would start to know where I was discussing with colleagues it was in the meeting in Bosh. Don't.
00:30:02 They say this mission is a bit crazy because it seems to recommend to go
00:30:07 and live as Shepparton the bone pain know if you come here and live as shepherd. You don't have.
00:30:16 To work and it will take time to be integrated and to follow all the rules and so so I will not recover
00:30:24 and that every bit bigger will become arrive
00:30:27 and be shepherded will not change their life expectancy OK I mean provably the situation
00:30:32 but this is not the solution what we try to do when we try to do it now in the US to try to see what.
00:30:41 The lesson that you may take from this life here
00:30:46 and to try to transfer it in the other possible then society to see what this feasible what can we keep as lesson
00:30:54 and it's clear that the social links very important the food is very important the genes you cannot change anything
00:31:01 and this is not you not to concede physical activity is it's important not to stop to work suddenly at sixty five
00:31:09 and to say now I will stop working I was single only on my my wellbeing this is the only way to go directly to the
00:31:18 cemetery OK you have to keep active to keep your brain active but also physical activity and so on
00:31:26 and that's what we are try to do now in some places in the US in the so-called blue room project.
00:31:33 People in the valley in the city decide to meet
00:31:37 and to discuss between them so what can we do as a community to improve those things so the way to act is not to say
00:31:45 you have to eat this you F.
00:31:46 To do the tricycle activity and so we don't have direct interaction between our result
00:31:52 and in the video people we make the an environment so that they will spontaneously adopt or.
00:32:00 New and more appropriate lifestyle just to take an example in the restaurant we promote longevity food
00:32:08 or in some restaurant we give smaller plates because then you will eat you eat a bit less
00:32:15 and this is very good evidence that that will tell you that big caloric restriction is very good you have to eat until
00:32:22 your stomach is eighty person full but not one hundred so
00:32:26 and then you put in the shop for example you promote you don't promote the ships and the Coca-Cola
00:32:31 and so you put in the front.
00:32:34 Apple fruit and so on you are preparing a place to do psych that would do to bike to food you are
00:32:43 and grazing social links
00:32:44 and so these are all think that are in direct way to promote healthy aging so all what we are doing in here is to to
00:32:54 find what are the recipe for Healthy Aging
00:32:57 and to try to see which one can be transposed in other without coming in large number
00:33:04 and disturbing the world system because it's a nonsense you cannot hear you know better understand it
00:33:09 and some import also in this society I mean if there is some immigration I can believe that this whole village is like
00:33:15 a. Marker like a fortress does that what does that do to to the community and to the to longevity so.
00:33:26 In fact all our centenarian are born because they were born one hundred years ago
00:33:32 and the Immigration is only probably started after the fifty when the village was opened to the.
00:33:41 Electricity plant and so on the roads were better so I will say that nowadays.
00:33:48 Half of the marriage are married people from outside
00:33:52 but up to fifty it was ninety per cent of the marriage that were between two people from the same village we.
00:34:00 I mean that immigration the ear is really low
00:34:05 and it's very recent so we are not yet able to see the consequence of immigration but what I may tell you is that
00:34:13 when I'm talking in the village I try to convince them that they the longevity for them is a treasure.
00:34:21 But that it is really important to keep it from generation to generation
00:34:26 and I am a bit afraid that it might be a temporary phenomenon which means that
00:34:33 and I will explain it to you very simply.
00:34:37 The centenarian today work a lot in the past they have very difficult conditions so they are first elected
00:34:46 and then they have a very heavy life and very active life and suddenly in the sixty's when they started to to be sick
00:34:57 or to have a problem the public health was the globe
00:35:01 and they have suddenly access to a lot of thing against malaria for example in forty eight
00:35:07 and then they haven't lost people and so on so they take advantage of their past life what is very active
00:35:13 and modern life what bring them public health service and so on and so you have a conjunction of to sing
00:35:23 but in future the problem is that you will keep probably the access to public health
00:35:29 but you will lose the difficult life in the morning
00:35:33 and in the past it was your pose it you have only this active life
00:35:38 and no public health so for us there is a very important question mark is it a temporary effort that with the emergence
00:35:48 of a lot of longevity now and not a random longevity as it is in our country elsewhere
00:35:54 or is it something that we may keep alive for the future and that's accepting to discuss with local.
00:36:01 And to convince them that they have a treasure.
00:36:04 But they have to do a lot of effort to keep it
00:36:07 and I am a bit afraid that the young generation has not yet understood that this is a real challenge that's important.
00:36:15 And for you as a demographer Can you explain. What fascinates you. This part of democracy. OK this is another story.
00:36:34 I will say that. Some demographic the only thing that they are interested in is number.
00:36:42 Mortality table and so on they never met anybody they never bet the population with.
00:36:50 The danger act they don't know they just look in the starter sticks and work like this or they do more than once
00:36:55 or for me. I have always been interested to meet people. And to work at the local level my father was.
00:37:07 A mentoring teacher he was the master of one village he was the only teacher in the village at the elementary school it
00:37:13 was a village of three hundred inhabitants I know the village by heart I have been every way in the village I did a
00:37:19 story of the village the big book
00:37:21 and I have the full genealogy of the vision I was in the twenty already interested by the mana graphic aspect which
00:37:30 means everything on a given population so that you may try to understand how it works and when I arrive.
00:37:40 You have the initial request of validation I did it
00:37:43 but then this is what I have in in my interest this one a graphic aspect this this a contact with the population emerge
00:37:53 and I decide to go slowly in this direction to work on one village to try to understand not only demographic.
00:38:00 Also what is outside to meet people and to interact with this population
00:38:06 and now I was the one that introduced the longevity celebration I was the one that put this on the witness book Asprey
00:38:13 mother musky.
00:38:15 Mortality muscular they were very happy so they make me sit in the needle
00:38:19 or in this village so I am I am fully involved in the village I cannot walk in the village with without being in touch
00:38:26 with people so this is very important for me as researcher to be in close contact with the population where you are
00:38:35 working every day and to tell him them we do symposium in the village for people in the village
00:38:42 and we trekked researcher from all over the world from Japan Korea on Kong us and they come to Tokyo
00:38:51 and there was a translation in Italian
00:38:53 and people were there on the first row nine hundred ninety two trying to understand
00:38:58 but very proud that this is their village so you see this is a forty different way of working I am demographic Yes I am
00:39:07 basically demographic I am I am even astrophysicist at the beginning so I became demographic
00:39:12 but my main interest is not to be demographic is to do it to discover this concept of loser because for me it's crazy
00:39:20 and I see it every day how people are interested by this and to try to convince people scientists
00:39:26 but also other people this is a very exceptional situation
00:39:30 and there is really question beyond how is it possible that this iteration exists
00:39:35 and I'm still that I was retired four years ago and it did not change anything I am continuing
00:39:42 and I will continue as soon as long as I may do it
00:39:46 and convince young people to continue also because this is really an attractive story for you the magic word.
00:39:55 The magic work the measure of quirk. Patient.
00:40:02 If you are not question it with what you are doing in terms of research stay in your office try to publish a paper that
00:40:09 will not be read by anybody else
00:40:11 or just a limited number of person that are just happy together with your models though you know what we are doing is
00:40:19 really evil of interest for The Root population and everybody me
00:40:23 and the stand everybody be understand what we asked looking for
00:40:27 and as soon as we will got some answers we will come back to them and
00:40:31 and say look this is something this is something so this is really to be passionated by your research
00:40:37 and that there is no problem and you will go on you are you know are serious you are archetypes and we think of you.
00:40:48 Explore what you think rather.
00:40:51 Since I was very young I remember I was probably six I have already met on the wall in my sleeping room between I think
00:41:01 the first thing that interests me was your graphic variation so I I try all the time to travel
00:41:10 and I better try to travel than to read books I have a neighbor in my flat is reading books I am travelling I have a
00:41:19 brother he is in did not move one day he did not go out from Belgium when I have been everywhere so I want to travel
00:41:27 and not to travel as a tourist I want and this unfortunately of demographic
00:41:33 and on longevity bring me in so wonderful place two weeks ago I was in Caucasus in a valley I have been in China in a
00:41:42 remote place I have been everywhere in place where you are not tourist you enter in the family your try to understand
00:41:49 and why because you discover so wonderful thing and your eye both to try to compare the situation
00:41:57 and if you want to see something you need it.
00:42:00 Compare with other place
00:42:02 and that's what I'm doing to try to compare all those places around the world I visited eighty five different countries
00:42:09 and.
00:42:11 An older European country for example that you're traveling with what makes you an explorer a next priority as that
00:42:18 these travel are never planned by other people than me which means that
00:42:23 when I went to go causes three weeks ago I first start to look in the data I was everything
00:42:30 and then I say we have to go there.
00:42:34 Maybe in your rooms on me yes it was their wish was to see if well plays in Georgia maybe consider as blues
00:42:44 and to do this first I have to look to start the second data to work to look what is written and I have a.
00:42:54 Seventy three already somebody say there isn't caucuses and longevity so I went there already in two thousand
00:43:00 and three and I was really in trouble but then. Tallinn University say we will go to Georgia for.
00:43:10 Forefront of formation I don't know I say OK if you go to Georgia I go with you
00:43:15 but I have a really an objective I want to find the place that could be a blue zone and to go there
00:43:23 and to assess the situation so I started to convince them
00:43:27 and finally we went to the message of Ali this is just the a by the L.
00:43:31 Group the highest mounting it's a very remote area you need three hours to go to the village
00:43:37 and then three more hours to do forty two kilometer to go on the highest village of Europe two thousand and three
00:43:42 and it's a wonderful place I have never seen this place like this and then I will say that.
00:43:50 I organize everything and therefore you need to be in touch with local people because you cannot go
00:43:56 and visit the centenarian like this spontaneous the U.S. To do to.
00:44:00 To be in touch with local people
00:44:02 and finally what we did we have a guide that bring us during one day to visit six centenarian and.
00:44:12 It was crazy I will say because you have the possibility to enter a normal house one go to was told me I want to die so
00:44:22 you have really crazy situation in another one it was the Monday after Easter we were invited to the family meal to go
00:44:30 to the cemetery to eat on the on the grave there with them because this is the way they do it in a wonderful landscape
00:44:38 it was tertiary we've also invited to drink wine to drink the local and we visited six centenarian
00:44:46 and I remember this girl eighty seven no one no one no one running around me there and shaking
00:44:53 and then we did the survey the day after we went to archives local archives
00:44:58 and she was only eighty seven according to US So none of the six centenarian that we met was real centenarian How come.
00:45:06 There were their ID cards say that they were said that ARE YOU OK but if you look in the household book from thirty
00:45:16 and forty then you see that the date of birth is not the same.
00:45:21 This possible I have not yet the full explanation
00:45:24 but it could be possible that to get quickly access to their pension they push a bit
00:45:30 but in some time they push fourteen years you see it's a bit crazy
00:45:36 but as demographics we are able to see it quickly because you cannot ever a baby at fifty two you cannot marry for the
00:45:42 first time at thirty eight there is some aspect that you directly
00:45:48 and the stand so the survey just a survey asking did the Euro birth of children and brother
00:45:54 and sister bring us in trouble but the day after we went to the local archive the people were very impressed.
00:46:00 We found all the data and the conclusion was clear none of these centenarian was readers
00:46:06 and I so now I have to do a scientific paper because if you have a negative point you have also to tell it it's not
00:46:15 only see it in Sardinia it could be that I will conclude by a negative point oh probably it was positive
00:46:24 but the Coke has this I am sure there is no exceptional longevity why.
00:46:30 Two weeks before Corey and where there are two to do film and a lot of people go there they are very happy
00:46:37 but I have to conclude that it's not the exception where comes this wish of countries
00:46:45 or people who have made it now that having being.
00:46:53 So you have to understand that when it is the case yes
00:46:58 when a village is put into evidence for their longevity Everybody's proud of longevity Stalin was the one that promoted
00:47:06 the longevity in Georgia he was very proud of the longevity of the Georgian man and so if I have a village
00:47:14 and they want to be the first in longevity it's the situation here in Sardinia they compete between village to be
00:47:21 number one in longevity and if I come in read a grand day and say I will go to the next village
00:47:27 or are a bit afraid that I will found that the other villages better data than they have in store so it's really
00:47:33 competition
00:47:34 and I have even some problem because of this competition it's not just more competition it's a competition in turmoil
00:47:41 at policy level political level and so on and for a lot of think so they are proud of layered longevity
00:47:49 and everywhere and a country will be proud like Japanese to be number one for the life expectancy
00:47:54 and everywhere there's a Japanese wonderful Okinawa number one.
00:48:00 So you have to be number one and longevity seems to be the result of the best L.T.
00:48:06 Aging of the well being of the population longevity is something that is the best sign of this of well being and
00:48:13 when you say competition between villages here what I mean by that this is another story.
00:48:20 To joining ten year I promoted Grandy and I put it on the reader's book as the place where men are living longer so
00:48:30 and then I have some information that other village Arabic Jairus OK And I say myself that OK even a ground days on the
00:48:40 top the surrounding village are also not far so I expressed the wish to
00:48:46 and large the area of investigation showed there was one girl from that village there that was also interested to
00:48:56 attract people because she has a note I'll tell you there were some interest but she scientists she did a B a Ph D.
00:49:02 Does a bone so they start.
00:49:06 To bend it sure that different municipality will be interested but doing so they wanted to do and that's a C.H.
00:49:14 and Of Blues old village OK And I understand that they were at the end of the day they were Tree Association starting
00:49:23 their one with this girl one with with a professor in Calgary and one with vinegar
00:49:29 and they did do that also while Association
00:49:32 and then we had grand they say Michelle you are with us you have not to be with the other one so I was not able to be
00:49:41 with one with the other one
00:49:42 and we did third one then I my position now is very clear I am a scientist I want to be outside of this competition
00:49:51 and I want to stay at the scientific level too I will have today
00:49:55 or tomorrow some discussion with the sin that go with people to say I don't want to say that.
00:50:00 I am explosively with your village what is important for me is if one village is interested I may ask them to collect
00:50:09 the data what they do know five really just collected the data and I went there to validate
00:50:14 and they are also not so high but they are high in longevity
00:50:18 but just to give an example the village we will go tomorrow say Will.
00:50:23 Organize this celebration to give the diploma of longevity village and we give it to six village
00:50:30 and we are Gandhi was included but then during the dinner the saying that go ask me tell me I am engineer
00:50:38 and if you have indicator I know that you have the value of these indicated you may tell me what is the ranking to see
00:50:47 if I am really better than we are Grundy so I spend two hours to convience him that the topic is not the ranking the
00:50:56 topic is to say you are longevity village on the starter stickle viewpoint I tell him if you have a smaller population
00:51:03 there is a variation that is due to random So finally what I only can tell them is that you are both largely above the
00:51:12 Italian average or not and this is a statistical test and I hope Ike I was convincing
00:51:19 but I really understand that everybody wants to be the first
00:51:24 and now I have some problem with the other person that I did not answer to our last message because I don't want to
00:51:31 enter in a system of competition. And that's that's that's very crucial.
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